Bolivarianism vs. Monroism: Latin America’s Pursuit of Integration

This infographic examines four integration mechanisms that reactivate Simón Bolívar's dream of a united Latin American and Caribbean region to counter US hegemony.

Hugo Chávez’s 1998 Bolivarian Revolution opened a new era in Latin America’s struggle for sovereignty and self-determination. The Venezuelan president and other progressive leaders built a number of multilateral organizations to promote economic, cultural and political integration in the continent.

The 2000s would see the creation of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Bolivarian Alliance for the People of Our America – Peoples’ Trade Treaty (ALBA-TCP), the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the PetroCaribe Alliance (see interactive map).

The rightward shift in the early to mid-2010s undermined these mechanisms, but some of the new progressive leaders are trying to reactivate them.