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Opinion and Analysis: Opposition

In Detail: The Deaths So Far

Since April 4, 2017, violent anti-government protests have rocked Venezuela. Characterised by deadly clashes between state security forces and opposition demonstrators, vandalism and destruction of public institutions, and the assassination of Chavista supporters, the unrest has left 108 people dead to date. Hundreds more have been injured.

Despite the heavy press coverage, there is significant confusion over how these deaths occurred and at the hands of whom. In a bid for clarity, Venezuelanalysis provides readers with an in-depth and a complete account of the deaths so far below.

 

This data will be updated on a daily basis in accordance with the results of ongoing investigations as well as new incidents.

Readers will note that a number of deaths have still not been accounted for given that substantive criminal allegations have yet to surface regarding the circumstances and alleged party responsible for the killings.

Total death count: 108
Date last updated: July 21

Deaths caused by authorities: 13
Gruseny Antonio Canelon, Daniel Queliz, Jairo Ortiz, Christian Ochoa, Diego Hernandez, Eyker Daniel Rojas Gil, Luis José Alviarez Chacón, Manuel Castellanos, August Sergio Pugas Velásquez, Juan Pablo Pernalete Lovera, Cesar David Pereira, Fabian Urbina, David Jose Vallenilla

Direct victims of opposition political violence: 20
Bryan Principal, Oliver Villa Camargo, Niumar Jose Sanclemente, Almelina Carrillo, Paola Ramirez, Jesus Leonardo Sulbaran, Luis Alberto Marquez, Efrain Sierra, Rexol Navas, Gerardo Barrera, Anderson Dugarte, Jorge David Escandon, Pedro Josue Carrillo, Danny José Subero, Orlando Figuera, Douglas Acevedo Sánchez, Ronny Alberto Parra, Alexander Rafael Sanoja Sanchez, Jose Luis Bravo, Ramses Martinez, Hector Anuel

Deaths indirectly linked to opposition barricades*: 8
Ricarda Gonzalez, Ana Colmenarez, Maria de los Angeles Guanipa, Angel Enrique Moreira Gonzalez, Carlos Enrique Hernández, José Amador Lorenzo González, Luis Alberto Machado, Miguel Angel Villalobos Urdaneta

Deaths still unaccounted for / disputed: 47
Miguel Ángel Colmenares, Mervins Guitian Díaz, Orlando Johan Jhosep Medina, Armando Cañizales, Juan Lopez, César Armando Guzman Jiménez, Socrates Salgado, Hecder Lugo, Miguel Castillo, Yeison Mora, Diego Arellano, José Francisco Guerrero, Edy Alejandro Teran Aguilar, Yoman Alí Bervecia Cabeza, Elvis Adonis Montilla Perez, Alfredo Carrizales, Miguel Bravo Ramirez, Freiber Perez Vielma, Juan Antonio Sánchez Suárez, Erick Antonio Molina Contreras, Adrian Jose Duque Vargas, Jhon Alberto Quintero, Manuel Sosa, Nelson Antonio Moncada Gomez, María Estefanía Rodríguez, Luis Miguel Gutierrez Molina, Yoinier Peña, Wilfredo José Mendoza Plaza, Neomar Lander, Jose Santiago Molleton Quintero, Jose Gregorio Perez Perez, Nelson Daniel Arévalo Avendaño, Isael Macadan Aquino, Jhonatan Jose Zavatti Serrano, Roberto Duran, Victor Betancourt, Alfredo Figuera, Fernando Rojas, Ruben Morrillo, Eduardo Jose Marquez, Engerberth Duque Chacon, Rubén Darío González Jiménez, José Luis Rivas Aranguren, Xiomara Escot, Robert Lugo, Andrés Uzcátegui, Ronny Tejera 

Accidental deaths: 3 

Paul Moreno, Luis Enrique Vera, Luigin Paz

People killed in lootings**: 14
Jairo Ramírez, William Marrero, Robert Centeno, Jonathan Meneses, Elio Pacheco, Kenyer Aranguren, Stivenson Zamora, Yorgeiber Rafael Barrena Bolivar, Albert Rodriguez, Ramon Martinez, Kevin León, Francisco González, Eduardo Quintero, Jose Gregorio Mendoza

Deaths attributed to pro-gov’t civilians: 3
Carlos Moreno, Renzo Rodriguez Rodas, Jhovanna Martínez

Name of Victim Political affiliation Alleged party responsible Circumstances Location and date Status of litigation
Jairo Ortiz, 19 Bystander, none National Bolivarian Police Force (PNB) Bystander in protest. Carrizal, Miranda/April 6 Officer arrested and charged.
Daniel Alejandro Queliz Araca, 20 Opposition protester Carabobo State Police Queliz was reportedly shot in the neck by police during a protest in front of the Los Parques apartment complex. Valencia, Carabobo /April 10 Two police officers arrested on April 12 and indicted.
Ricarda de Lourdes Gonzalez, 87 Bystander, none Indirectly anti-government protesters The opposition initially claimed that she had died due to tear gas used by authorities. Her family (daughter) later revealed that she had suffered a CVA and they had been unable to get her to a hospital in time due to opposition roadblocks. Bello Monte, Caracas/April 10 None to date.
Miguel Ángel Colmenares, 36 Bystander, unclear Unclear MP has confirmed Colmenares died of a shotgun wound following a robbery in the vicinity of opposition protests by unidentified subjects, who reportedly threw explosive devises at him before opening fire.    Barquisimeto, Lara/ April 12 Public Prosecution (MP) has dispatched state attorneys to investigate. The body has yet to identify those responsible.
Brayan Principal, 14 Bystander, from Chavista family Armed protesters from the private Hacienda Yucatán residential community. Armed protesters opened fire on the adjacent Ali Primera government public housing (GMVV) complex after residents from the latter attempted to remove burning roadblocks.Principal was a resident of Alí Primera and was shot twice in the company of his mother when trying to relocate from the scene of confrontation. Barquisimeto, Lara/ April 12 Héctor Yohan Zapata Felice (29) was arrested and charged with first degree murder and serious damages on May 26. 
Gruseny Antonio Canelón, 32 Opposition protester Bolivarian National Guard Died of organ failure after being shot during protest. Cabudare, Lara/ April 11 Arrest warrant issued for 15 GNB officers.
Oliver Villa Camargo, 29 Bystander, none Opposition protesters Crossed a barricade in el Paraiso, Caracas, while driving with a friend. Two assailants on a motorcycle shot him in the face. He kept driving but died minutes later. El Paraíso, Caracas/ April 13 None as of yet.
Carlos Moreno, 17 Bystander, none Unclear, though opposition has blamed pro-government “collectives”. Moreno was heading to a soccer game at the time of death. He was not involved in protests, according to his brother, although he was close to opposition protests when he was shot - allegedly by men on motorbikes. Media reports suggest Moreno was caught in some kind of confrontation between pro and anti-government protesters. Witnesses blamed pro-government civilians for the death. Moreno died shortly after he was admitted to hospital. Caracas/April 19 Sucre police chief Ramon Camacho Delegado (35) and civilian Alexander Jose Linares (40) have been arrested and charged with the murder. The Sucre police force is controlled by opposition Mayor Carlos Ocariz. However, the CICPC has linked Camacho to the armed March 5 Front collective, although the allegation has not been independently confirmed. 
Paola Ramirez, 23 Bystander. Opposition, but not involved in protests.  Iván Alexis Pernía Dávila (31) has confessed to the murder. The Minister of Justice, Nestor Reverol, stated that Davila is a supporter of hard rightwing party Vente Venezuela. The party has denied the link. Video shows Ramirez crossing the road as a group of men on motorbikes drive past. She then falls to the ground. It is presumed that Davila was attempting to shoot at the motorbikers.

San Cristobal, Tachira/April 19 Davila has been charged with premeditated murder and illegally carrying a firearm.
Niumar Jose Sanclemente Sergeant with Bolivarian National Guard Opposition protesters Came under gunfire during an opposition protest. One other GNB officer was also injured. Los Castores, San Antonio de los Altos, municipality of Los Salias, Miranda state/April 19 Investigation ongoing.
Ramón Martínez, 29 Unknown Opposition protesters Shop-owner trying to defend store during looting/vandalism in El Valle. San Andres, El Valle, Caracas/April 20 MP dispatched district attorney.
Kevin León, 30 Unknown. Possibly a bystander, possibly protester. Unknown Died from multiple gunshot wounds in connection with violent unrest in El Valle, according to press and Public Prosecution. San Andres, El Valle, Caracas/April 20 MP dispatched district attorney.
8 people electrocuted Names: Jairo Ramírez (45), William Marrero, (33), Robert Centeno (29), Jonathan Meneses (27), Elio Pacheco (20), Kenyer Aranguren (20), Stivenson Zamora (29), Yorgeiber Rafael Barrena Bolivar (15) Presumably opposition Accidental The victims received an electric shock – possibly from a security mechanism – as they attempted to loot a bakery. San Andres, El Valle, Caracas/April 20 MP dispatched district attorney.


Francisco González, 34 Unknown, presumably opposition Unknown Gonzalez died from gunshot wounds in El Valle during looting on April 20. El Valle, Caracas/April 20 MP is investigating his death.
Albert Alejandro Rodriguez Aponte, 16 Presumably opposition State security forces The Public Prosecution has confirmed that Rodriguez was asphyxiated by tear gas used to control unrest during widespread looting in El Valle. San Andres, El Valle, Caracas/April 20 District attorney dispatched to investigate. MP has confirmed death is not a human rights violation perpetrated by security forces. 
Mervins Guitian Díaz, 26 Unknown, worked as public works supervisor for Sucre municipality. Unknown Unclear: Opposition Mayor Carlos Oscariz reports that Diaz was shot in the vicinity of a protest. MP confirms he died after being shot in abdomen. 5 de Julio, Petare, Miranda/April 21

MP dispatched district attorney to investigate.
Almelina Carrillo, 47 Bystander, unknown.  Presumably opposition sympathiser Was struck in the head by a frozen bottle close to the April 19 Chavista march, thrown presumably by an opposition sympathiser from a building above. She was hospitalized in critical condition but died on April 23. She was a nurse on her way to work when she encountered the march and was struck. Caracas/April 19, later died on April 23. Jesus Juan Albi Zambito (42) was arrested on May 2 and subsequently indicted in connection with the murder. 
Jesus Leonardo Sulbaran, 42 Merida state gov’t worker, Chavista Opposition sniper(s) Shot in the neck during pro-government rally by alleged sniper(s) firing from nearby apartment. Merida/April 24 National and state attorneys dispatched to investigate.
Luis Alberto Marquez, 52 Merida state gov’t worker, Chavista Opposition sniper(s) Shot in the head during pro-government rally by alleged sniper(s) firing from nearby apartment. Merida/April 24, died 1.30am April 25 MP has yet to issue a public statement regarding the status of his individual case.
Orlando Johan Jhosep Medina, 23 Opposition protester. Mother is local Chavista leader and employee of Municipal Council. Unclear Shot in the head by shotgun round during violent anti-government demonstration near town hall in Tocuyo in early hours of April 24. Tocuyo, Lara/ April 24 State district attorney commissioned to investigate.
Renzo Rodriguez Roda, 54 Bystander, motorcycle taxi driver Neón Bencomo Terán is a government supporter, but the political affiliation of the other suspects is unknown.  According to MP, he was buying medicine for his wife at a pharmacy on Barinitas Avenue, "when a demonstration passed and he received a gunshot wound in the left pectoral region of his chest that caused his death."  Bolivar, Barinas/April 24 Gabriel Antonio Rojas Moreno charged with the homicide, alongside Neón Bencomo Terán and an unidentified 17-year-old. While the political affiliation of Rojas and the adolescent are unknown, posts on Terán's Facebook page indicate he is a government supporter, though he has denied being a member of an armed collective. 
Christian Humberto Ochoa Soriano, 22 Opposition protester Carabobo State Police Shot while protesting in Miguel Pena, Carabobo. Died later in hospital. Carabobo, Valencia/April 24, died April 25 Police officer Gerson Alberto Quintero, 36, to be indicted for homicide by MP.
Juan Pablo Pernalete Lovera, 20 Opposition protester Unknown. Injured while protesting in Altamira and admitted to hospital without vital signs. Initial autopsy results suggested that victim died from haematoma in left side of chest that was possibly caused by a bolt pistol used for slaughtering cattle. The MP has subsequently alleged that the fatal wound was caused by a tear gas canister fired by the National Guard. The National Ombudsman's office has called for an impartial investigation into the incident.  Chacao, Caracas/April 27 MP is investigating.
Efraín Sierra, 34 Bystander, Chavista Opposition protesters Tachira Governor José Gregorio Vielma Mora told press that Sierra was killed after opposition protesters attempted to steal his motorbike at a roadblock. Tachira/April 26 MP has yet to release an official statement on this case.
Eyker Daniel Rojas Gil, 20 Protester  Presumably National Guard  According to the National Ombudsman's office, Rojas was shot in the face with a firearm during a protest in Barquisimeto and admitted to hospital without vital signs.  Barquisimeto, Lara/April 26 Arrest orders have been issued for four National Guard personnel in connection with the homicide. 
Ana Victoria Colmenarez de Hernandez, 43 Bystander, unkown Indirectly opposition protesters Passenger on a bus that flipped over while attempting avoid a barricade, presumably set up by anti-government demonstrators as part of the opposition-organized "National Barricade".

Naguanagua, Carabobo/ May 2

None as of yet.
Maria de los Angeles Guanipa, 38.  Bystander, unkown Indirectly opposition protesters Passenger on a bus that flipped over while attempting avoid a barricade, presumably set up by anti-government demonstrators as part of the opposition-organized "National Barricade". Individual has yet to be identified. Naguanagua, Carabobo/ May 2 None as of yet.
Angel Enrique Moreira Gonzalez, 28 Bystander, unkown Indirectly opposition protesters

The olympic swimmer was killed when another vehicle collided with his motorcycle on the Prados del Este highway and subsequently fled the scene. Venezuelan Interior Minister Nestor Reverol has indicated that the other vehicle was going the wrong direction on the highway due to a barricade near the Santa Fe exit, leading to the fatal accident.

La Trinidad, Caracas/ May 2 None as of yet.
Eduardo Jonathan Quintero, 21 Looter, presumably opposition Store owner He was allegedly shot and killed by the shop owner who opened fire on Quintero and other looters. Valencia, Carabobo/ May 2

Authorities are actively looking for the shop owner, who has been identified as Xen Ye Chon (41).

Armando Cañizales, 18 Protester Unclear, though opposition has blamed the GNB. However, a autopsy found he was killed by a ball bearing not a tear gas grenade.

Killed by an inury to the neck during clashes between the GNB and armed protesters. According to the autopsy, the injury was caused by a ball bearing likely fired from an unconventional weapon. Six more ball bearings were discovered at the scene of the protest near to where the GNB was positioned. A nitrate ion test reveals the projectiles contained gunpowder, suggesting that they were presumably fired towards the GNB by demonstrators.

Las Mercedes, Caracas/ May 3

MP has dispatched a district attorney to investigate.

Gerardo Barrera, 38 Carabobo state police Unclear, though possibly protesters. Injured during protest on May 3. Died in hospital morning of May 4. San Joaquin, Carabobo/ May 4

State prosecutor has arrested a man in connection with the murder.

Juan Lopez, 28 Chavista  Unclear, presumably a political assassination. The Jose Antonio Anzoategui student federation leader was shot at the end of a student assembly by an unidentified subject who fled on motorbike. He had been publicly supporting the Venezuelan President's call for a Constituent Assembly. The attacker was present in the assembly and opened fire from the crowd before fleeing. Anzoategui/ May 4

State prosecutor is investigating.

César Armando Guzman Jiménez, 22 Unknown Unknown Guzman was injured in the same incident as Lopez (above), alongside two other students. Local press reports say that Guzman was sat on steps nearby to the student assembly and was hit by a stray bullet. He was admitted to hospital but died three days later. Anzoategui/ May 4

None to date

Rexol Alexander Acevedo Navas, 32 Chavista. Navas was a widely respected workers' leader at worker controlled factory Industrias Diana. Alleged opposition protesters. Family members report that Navas was driving to visit family members on May 2nd when he came across an opposition roadblock. Protesters ordered Navas to hand over his vehicle. He was shot dead when he put up resistance. His body was found on May 3rd on a nearby freeway alongside his burnt vehicle. Valencia/May 2 None to date
Hecder Lugo, 22 Opposition protester Unknown. Opposition has blamed National Guard. Lugo died on May 5th from a gunshot wound to the head after being injured at an opposition protest the previous day. San Diego, Carabobo/May 4th

The Public Prosecution is investigating.

Miguel Castillo, 27 Opposition protester Unclear. Opposition has blamed security forces. Died May 10, after being shot in the chest by a marble. According to preliminary reports, the marble was fired from a gun at close range. The opposition has claimed security forces are using marbles instead of crowd crontrol ammunition, though there's no reliable evidence to support this claim. Opposition protesters themselves, however, do use improvised weapons regularly. Las Mercedes, Baruta municipality, Miranda state/May 10

The Public Prosecution is investigating, while the Ombudsman's office has also opened an inquiry. 

Anderson Dugarte, 31 Bystander, mototaxi driver Unidentified sniper, may have been targeting police and government supporters. Government has blamed the opposition. Died May 10 of a gunshot sustained on May 8. Authorities say Dugarte was one of three people who came under sniper fire. Merida City, Merida State/May 8

Investigation ongoing

Carlos Enrique Hernández, 30

Bystander, mototaxi driver Indirectly opposition protesters  Died May 12 after motorbike collided with debris left from opposition barricade and hit lamppost.  Cabudare, Lara/May 12

None to date

Luis José Alviarez Chacón, 18

Opposition protester Tachira state police  Died May 15 after being shot in the chest during an unofficial anti-government protest Palmira/ Tachira/May 15 Two PNB officers, Wilfredo Casanova and Carla Sayago, arrested and indicted. 

Diego Hernandez, 33

Opposition protester  Police officer from Tachira State Police force Died May 15 after being shot during anti-government demonstration.   Tachira/May 15 Officer Luis Oviedo detained May 16 and subsequently indicted.

Yeison Mora, 17

Bystander Unclear, autopsy points to marble possibly fired by protesters.  Died May 15 after being shot in head near to a demonstration. Mora's uncle has indicated that Mora was on his way to the hardware store with his brother when he crossed paths with the protest. According to preliminary autopsy results announced by Barinas Governor Zenaida Gallardo, the impact to the youth’s right infraorbital nerve “was not caused by a firearm but by a marble”, which was presumably fired from a makeshift weapon used by protesters. Mora's family has blamed the opposition for the death.
 
Barinas/May 15 MP investigations underway

Diego Arellano, 31

Opposition protester  Unclear, opposition has blamed GNB. Autopsy results points to fellow demonstrators.  Shot in the neck during a protest in San Antonio de Los Altos at approximately 11:30am. Subsequently died in the emergency room. Justice Minister Nestor Reverol has revealed that according to autopsy results Arellano was killed by an 11.03-milimeter metallic sphere fired from close range, indicating that the killer was “among the demonstrators”. Twelve similar metal spheres and a makeshift pipe bomb were likewise discovered at the crime scene near to where the National Guard was positioned, suggesting that they were being fired by the demonstrators.  Miranda/May 16 MP has dispatched state district attorney. 

José Francisco Guerrero, 15

Bystander Still unknown, but his sister released a video blaming national guard.  Shot while buying flour near to an anti-government protest in Tachira at approximately 4pm May 16th. He later died in hospital on May 17th.   San Cristobal/Tachira/May 16 MP has dispatched district attorney. 

Manuel Castellanos, 46

Bystander National Guard  Shot in the neck and killed while making a purchase in the vicinity of an opposition protest.  Tachira/May 17 MP ordered the arrest and indictment of three National Guard sergeants. 
Paul Moreno, 25

 

Opposition Protester  Traffic accident at opposition barricade.

According to Public Prosecution, he was run over by a truck while at a street barricade in Maracaibo. He was subsequently rushed to the hospital where he died shortly thereafter of a brain injury.  

Maracaibo, Zulia/May 17 The MP is set to indict Omar José Barrios (22), and his girlfriend, Liz Mary Hernández Paredes (20), for allegedly running over Moreno when protesters blocked their way.
Pedro Josue Carrillo, 21 Local PSUV leader The National Ombudsman's office has labeled the murder a "hate crime" allegedly perpetrated by anti-government elements. 

According to unconfirmed eyewitness acounts reported in the local newspaper Ciudad Barquisimeto, he was kidnapped by masked men in a blue Meru truck who were overheard saying, “pick him up, this one is a Chavista.” His body reportedly appeared two days later with with "burn marks and signs of torture". The National Ombudsman's office has listed the killing as a "hate crime". 

Barquisimeto/ disappeared on May 16, body found on May 18 MP has yet to issue a statement on the murder. 
Jorge David Escandon, 37 Carabobo state police officer Opposition sniper

According to Interior Minister Nestor Reverol, Escandon and one other officer “were vilely attacked by snipers” on May 15, amid protests. He died on May 19 from the gunshot.

Shot on May 15 on the Autopista del Este in Palma Real, Carabobo. Died in hospital of his injuries on May 19. Gerardo Alvarez (32) arrested and facing charges from national and state prosecutors for the homicide.
Edy Alejandro Teran Aguilar, 23 Opposition student protester Unclear, though opposition has blamed "colectivos". 

According to a statement by Venezuela’s Public Prosecution, the incident occurred when “presumably various armed persons arrived on the scene and opened fire at the group of protesters." 

Valera, Trujillo/May 20 State district attorney dispatched to investigate. 
Yoman Alí Bervecia Cabeza, 19 Opposition protester Unclear, but private media and opposition have blamed government "repression". 

According to the MP, Bervecia, “was in the [Jose Antonio Paez] sector of Barinas city, where a protest was underway, when he was shot.” He was subsequently rushed to the Los Pozones emergency room without vital signs.

Barinas/May 22 State district attorney dispatched to investigate. 
Elvis Adonis Montilla Perez Opposition protester Unclear, but private media and opposition have blamed government "repression". 

According to the MP, he was shot in the chest “in the vicinity of the Palma de Oro residential complex." The national newspaper El Universal has reported that the death occurred close to barricades made of large concrete tubes erected by protesters near the Palma de Oro and Santa Clara residential complexes. Police arrived on the scene early, using tear gas to disperse the protests and open the way for vehicles to pass.

Barinas/May 22 State district attorney dispatched to investigate. 
Alfredo Carrizales Opposition protester  Unclear, but private media and opposition have blamed government "repression".  According to MP, he was in the Andres Eloy Blanco neighborhood, “where a demonstration was taking place, when he was shot in the left intercostal.” El Universal has suggested Carrizales may have been part of a looting on Cedeño street, but the account is unconfirmed.    Barinas/May 22 State district attorney dispatched to investigate. 
Miguel Bravo Ramirez, 25 Opposition protester Unclear, but opposition has blamed Barinas state police. 

According to the MP, Bravo was among a group of protesters in the vicinity of the Plaza Bolivar "when an irregular situation occured in which Bravo Ramirez was wounded by the impact of two projectiles." 

 

 Jose Antonio de Sucre municipality, Barinas/Wounded May 22, died May 22 State district attorney dispatched to investigate. 
Freiber Perez Vielma, 21 Opposition protester   Unknown According to the MP, he was in the neighborhood of El Corozo, "where a demonstration was taking place when he was shot in the back."  Barinas/Wounded May 22, died May 23 State district attorney dispatched to investigate. 
Jhon Alberto Quintero  Unclear  Unkown, though opposition has blamed the death on “repression” by state security forces. 

 

Fatally shot in the head under unclear circumstances. According to El Nacional’s Barinas correspondent, Yonny Camacho, it is uncertain whether Quintero was participating in a looting or was killed in a botched robbery.  Guanape, Barinas/May 22  The MP has yet to issue an official statement. 
Juan Antonio Sánchez Suárez, 21 Opposition protester Unknown Sánchez Suárez was participating in an anti-government near to the José Antonio Páez residential complex in Barinas at around 6pm when he was shot twice in the chest. He was admitted to hospital without vital signs.  Barinas/May 23 Under investigation by state prosecution. 
Erick Antonio Molina Contreras, 35 Opposition protester Unknown Molina was shot several times while engaging in a protest near to the Los Proceres apartment blocks in Barinas. He was admitted to hospital but pronounced dead.  Barinas/May 23 Under investigation by state prosecution. 
Adrian Jose Duque Bravo, 23 Opposition protester Unknown  Vargas was shot during a nightime demonstration outside of the Las Torres del Saladillo apartment block in Maracaibo. The state prosecution says that the incident occurred after an "irregular situation" broke out when the national guard arrived to restore order.  Maracaibo, Zulia/May 24 Under investigation by state prosecution. 
Augusto Sergio Pugas Velásquez Opposition protester Bolivar state police Was shot while inside a university building amid protests in the area. Was rushed to hospital, but died shortly after sustaining the injury. Ciudad Bolivar, Bolivar/May 24 Five police officers and one Bolivarian militia seargent charged with first degree murder and jailed
Manuel Sosa, 33 Opposition protester Unconfirmed, but mother has blamed National Guard.  Shot in the neck during violent clashes between demonstrators and National Guard personnel.  Cabudare, Lara/May 26 State district attorney dispatched to investigate. 
Danny José Subero, 34 Bystander, retired National Guard lieutenant reportedly in attendence of funeral for Manuel Sosa. Opposition supporters in attendence of funeral. According to the MP, Subero was present at the funeral with his motorcycle “when he was approached by a group of people who beat him with blunt objects in different parts of his body and shot him various times”.  Cabudare, Lara/May 27 Seven people have been arrested and charged with the crime. 
Cesar David Pereira, 20 Opposition Popular Will party activist Anzoategui state police Shot during a demonstration and died the subsequent morning.  Lecheria, Anzoategui/wounded May 27, died morning of May 28 Police officer Onan Pereira (32) arrested and charged with the crime. 
Nelson Antonio Moncada Gomez Bystander. Judge, involved in upholding sentence against Leopoldo Lopez Unclear, though authorities suspect possible assassination. Gunned down in Caracas while heading home at around 10pm. According to the MP, he attempted to avoid a barricade and was subsequently shot by armed persons, who took his possessions. The Interior Ministry has suggested the killing may have been politically motivated, and possibly linked to Moncada's involvement in high profile prosecutions of opposition activists and politicians. El Paraiso, Caracas/May 31 National prosecutor dispatched to investigate. 
María Estefanía Rodríguez, 46 Bystander Unclear. Both security forces and opposition groups have been blamed. Killed while trying to pass through an opposition barricade. Violence reportedly broke out, though it's unclear who killed her. Barquisimeto, Lara state/ June 1 Investigation ongoing
Orlando Figuera, 21 Bystander  Opposition protesters Accused of being a government supporter by opposition protesters, who brutally beat him before dousing him in gasoline and setting him on fire.  Chacao, Caracas/hospitalized on May 20, died on June 3 MP has dispatched Metropolitan Caracas district attorney to investigate. 
Luis Miguel Gutierrez Molina, 20 Opposition protester Unknown Suffered a gunshot wound to the stomach during a protest in Merida. El Universal has reported the incident ocurred during clashes between demonstrators and authorities. Merida/hospitalized on May 17, died on June 2 State prosecutor is investigating. 
Yoinier Peña, 28 Opposition protester Unkown  According to the preliminary MP report, Peña was shot in the back near a protest in Barquismeto by unknown assailants in a pickup truck who reportedly opened fire on those present. However, the national ombudsman’s office has issued a conflicting account, suggesting that Peña was “mortally wounded in an [anti-government] barricade”. Barquisimeto, Lara/hospitalized on April 11, died on June 3 State prosecutor is investigating.
Wilfredo José Mendoza Plaza GNB The MP says that Mendoza was shot by Boada following an argument.  Mendoza was found dead on the night of June 7, not far from a protest hotspot in Caracas. Authorities initially suggested Mendoza may have been the victim of a robbery, and it's unclear whether the incident was related to protests.  Altamira, Caracas/Body found on June 7 MP will charge Rubén Darío Boada Fumero with the murder of Mendoza. 
Neomar Lander, 17 Opposition protester Disputed. Authorities say Lander was killed after a homemade explosive detonated in his hands. Unofficial reports suggest Lander may have been hit by a teargas canister. Lander was rushed to a Caracas hospital on June 7, after a confrontation between protesters and security forces. Opposition groups and media have claimed he was killed after being shot with a teargas canister. Authorities dispute this, and have said there is evidece Lander died after an improvised explosive unexpectedly detonated in his hands. Photos of the youth prior to his death show him in possession of home-made explosives. Meanwhile, the paramedic who attended to Lander has stated that the victim's burns and wounds suggested that he had died due to a "detonation" as opposed to a tear gas grenade.  Miranda/June 7 MP is investigating. 
Socrates Salgado, 49 Unknown  Unclear, but opposition blames National Guard.  Opposition lawmaker Jose Manuel Olivares has claimed Salgado "died of a respiratory failure caused by tear gas," but the account is unconfirmed.  La Guaira, Vargas/June 12 MP is investigating.

Jose Santiago Molleton Quintero

 

Member of Voluntad popular, possible mayoral candidate

Shot by unidentified assailant. 

Molleton was shot in a restaurant by an unidentified attacker. No suspect has been identified.

 

Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar state / June 12

 

Investigation ongoing

Douglas Acevedo Sánchez, 41 Police supervisor at Merida state police force Presumed to have been shot by protesters Merida state governor Alexis Ramirez said Acevedo died in hospital after being shot in the neck by armed protesters while trying to keep roads open and protect citizens near to an opposition roadblock.  Merida/June 13 MP is investigating
José Amador Lorenzo González Bystander Opposition barricades  Died in what MP reports was a motorcycle accident caused while trying to navigate an opposition barricade in the Los Campitos neighbourhood of the Baruta municipality of Miranda state. Lorenzo reportedly died at the scene. Miranda/June 14 MP has dispatched Caracas district attorney to investigate. 
Luis Alberto Machado Bystander Opposition barricades  Authorities say Nachado was involved in the same traffic accident as Lorenzo (see above). Was rushed to hospital, but was dead on arrival. Miranda/June 14 MP has dispatched Caracas district attorney to investigate. 
Luis Enrique Vera, 21 Opposition protester  Traffic accident at opposition barricade.  According to MP report, Vera was at a street barricade blocking Guajira Avenue in Maracaibo when he was run over by a pickup truck and killed instantly.  Maracaibo, Zulia/June 15 Darwin Rubio (37) arrested and charged with the homicide. 
Jose Gregorio Perez Perez. 20 Opposition protester Shot by unidentified assailant.  Perez was reportedly gunned down by an unidentified assailant in Tachira state after participating in a protest. Opposition groups have blamed government supporters, while authorities say they are investigating. Junin municipality, Tachira state / June 15 Investigation ongoing
Nelson Daniel Arévalo Avendaño, 22 Opposition protester  Unknown.  The private media has claimed that Arévalo was shot as he participated in an opposition protest in Barquisimeto. In contrast, Justice Minister Nestor Reverol has said the victim was killed when a home-made mortar he was manipulating unexpectedly exploded. The minister said witnesses had testified to this version of events. The MP has said that Arévalo was "injured in the neck".  Barquisimeto, Lara/ June 16 The MP has dispatched an district attorney to investigate
Fabian Urbina, 17  Opposition protester GNB soldier.  Justice Minister Nestor Reverol confirmed that authorities believe a GNB soldier had illegally used his firearm against protesters.  Altamira, Caracas/June 19

First sergeant Raymon Ávila León and second sergeants Johan Rojas Díaz and Jesús Baez Rojas from the GNB will be charged in relation to Urbina's death.

David Jose Vallenilla Opposition protester Military police Justice Minister Nestor Reverol has stated Vallenilla was shot by soldier during an attack on the La Carlota airbase in Caracas. Caracas/June 22

Soldier involved will face charges, Reverol stated.

Ronny Alberto Parra, 27 National Guard sergeant  Presumably looters  MP has reported that Parra died in an "irregular situation" during violent unrest in Maracay sparked by the opposition's renewed calls to block roads nationwide. Journalist Ramón Camacho has reported that Parra was shot while attempting to prevent a looting at the Walio Supermarket.  Maracay, Aragua/shot June 26, died June 27 

MP has dispatched a state prosecutor to investigate. 

Jhonatan Jose Zavatti Serrano, 25 Bystander Unknown MP has stated Zavatti was shot in the head on June 26 while walking in Petare, Miranda. He died a day later. Petare, Miranda/shot on June 26, died June 27.

MP is investigating.

Isael Macadan Aquino, 18 Protester Unclear, arrests have been made. MP has stated Aquino was shot during an "irregular situation" inside a commercial property. Local media has reported he was involved in a protest that devolved into looting. Tronconal Quinto de Barcelona, Simón Bolívar,Anzoátegui/June 28

Two men have been arrested in connection to the death, though no motive has been made public.

Luigin Paz, 20 Protester Motorist Paz was reportedly killed at an opposition barricade after being hit by a truck. Maracaibo, Zulia/June 28

MP is investigating.

Roberto Duran, 26 Protester Unidentified attackers Duran was reportedly shot while participating in a protest that was attacked by an unknown armed group. Terepaima, Barquisimeto, Lara

MP has yet to confirm the death. 

Victor Betancourt, 18 Unclear, possbly a protester Unclear Unclear. One opposition supporter has claimed Betancourt was killed during a protest, while a local journalist has suggested he was involved in a traffic incident while buying bread. Lara

MP has yet to confirm the death. 

Alfredo Figuera, 18 Bystander Unclear  According to the MP, he was walking down a street in Maracay Monday afternoon when he passed a demonstration and was shot in he head by a bullet allegedly fired by two suspects on a motorcycle. Maracay, Aragua/Wounded June 26, died June 29

State prosecutor dispatched to investigate. 

Alexander Rafael Sanoja Sanchez, 38 Bystander, motorcyclist Opposition protesters  According to eyewitness accounts, the motorcyclist collided with a truck when it was attempting a U-turn to avoid being looted by opposition protesters at a barricade. The collision impacted the truck’s gas tank, igniting an explosion that incinerated both motorists.  Sanoja was reportedly trapped by the flames and died on the scene.  Maracaibo, Zulia/June 28

MP has yet to issue a statement on the death.

Jose Luis Bravo, 34 Bystander, truck driver Opposition protesters 

Bravo was driving a Chevrolet NPR when he reached an anti-government barricade where opposition militants reportedly tried to loot his vehicle. In a bid to escape, the truck driver attempted a U-turn, was hit in the windshield by a Molotov cocktail, and ultimately collided with a motorcyclist. The collision impacted the truck’s gas tank, igniting an explosion that incinerated both men. Bravo was hospitalized at a special burn unit belonging to state oil company PDVSA, but the wounds were too severe and he died of a heart attack the same afternoon. 

Maracaibo, Zulia/June 28 MP has yet to issue a statement on the death. 
Eduardo Jose Marquez, 20 Protester  Unknown 

According to the MP, Marquez was at a protest when a group of unknown subjects opened fire in the Pie de Llano neighborhood of the Andean city. The incident occurred on the same day as the killing of Merida State Police Officer Douglas Acevedo Sanchez (45) near an opposition barricade. 

 Merida/Wounded June 13, died June 30 State and national prosecutors dispatched to investigate. 
Jose Gregorio Mendoza, 44 Bystander, shop owner   Looters  According to Lara Press, Mendoza was killed inside his store, which he was attempting to defend against looters.  Barquisimeto, Lara/June 30  State prosecutor with human rights division commissioned to investigate. 
Ramses Martinez, 20  Chavista activist with Francisco Miranda Front (FFM) Presumably anti-government militants According to local press, Martinez was shot in the head while attempting to clear an opposition street barricade. The FFM has blamed the death on the opposition-controlled municipal government and state governor, accusing them of “sowing hate” and “financing terrorist acts”.  Barquisimeto, Lara/Shot on evening of June 30, died in hospital July 1 State prosecutor from common crimes division dispatched to investigate. 
Fernando Rojas, 44 Unclear, though MP suggests he was a protester.   Unknown   MP says Rojas died "during a protest" but no further details have yet been made available.  Barquisimeto, Lara/June 30 State prosecutor from common crimes division dispatched to investigate. 
Ruben Morrillo, 33 Unclear, though MP suggests he was a protester.   Unknown  MP says Morrillo died "during a protest" but no further details have yet been made available.  Barquisimeto, Lara/June 30 State prosecutor from human rights division commissioned to investigate. 
Engerberth Duque Chacon, 25 Protester Disputed Interior Ministry has stated he was killed while handling an improvised explosive during a rally. Opposition figures have disputed this, claiming he was killed by a tear gas canister. Incident occurred in Tariba, Cardenas municipality, Tachira/ July 4 Investigation ongoing
José Luis Rivas Aranguren, 42 Chavista candidate for transport sector of National Constituent Assembly.  Unknown Rivas was participating in a public assembly on the constituent national assembly. He was shot eleven times in the face when he stood up to speak. The attacker was in the audience and fled after opening fire.  Aragua/July 10 The MP has dispatched a district attorney to investigate.
Rubén Darío González Jiménez, 16  Bystander Unknown. Opposition sources have suggested he was killed by security forces. Gonzalez died after being shot in the ribs during an opposition protest. Initial reports suggested he was involved in the protest, though his family has denied this La Isabelica de Valencia, Valencia/July 10 The MP has dispatched a district attorney to investigate.
Miguel Angel Villalobos Urdaneta Bystander Opposition roadblock. Villalobos died after attempting to swerve an opposition roadblock at around 11pm and losing control of his vehicle.  Maracaibo/July 10 None to date.
Xiomara Escot Opposition voter Unidentified assailants. Opposition has blamed pro-government civilians. Escot was gunned down while waiting in line to vote during the opposition's unofficial referendum. Three other people were also injured. Caracas/July 16 MP is investigating.
Hector Anuel Unknown Opposition protesters. Anuel was allegedly hit by a mortar, before being burned and beaten by opposition protesters. Anzoategui/July 18 MP is investigating
Robert Lugo Presumed protester Unclear, though opposition has blamed state security forces. Lugo was killed amid protests in Valencia, Carabobo. Opposition figures claim he was shot by security forces during clashes, though this hasn't been officially confirmed. Valencia/July 20 MP is investigating.
Andres Uzcategui, 23 Presumed protester Unclear, though opposition has blamed state security forces. Uzcategui was killed amid protests in Valencia, Carabobo, possibly in the same incident as Robert Lugo. Opposition figures claim he was shot by security forces during clashes, though this hasn't been officially confirmed. Valencia/July 20 MP is investigating.
Jhovanna Martínez, 15 Protester Unclear, though MP has suggested possible  Martínez was killed amid protests around 8pm, when the MP says a "group of armed motorists allegedly fired at those present". Pomona, Manuel Dagnino, Maracaibo/July 20 MP is investigating.
Ronny Tejera, 24 Presumed protester Unclear Tejera was killed in a firefight that took place amid protests. Some opposition figures claim he may have been killed by state security forces. Los Teques, Miranda/July 20 MP is investigating.

Notes

*Here we have included all deaths indirectly resulting from anti-government barricades, which comprise mainly traffic accidents. Here we have also included the death of Paul Moreno, who was accidentally run over by a vehicle while blocking a thoroughfare. All persons shot dead at opposition barricades have been included in the "direct victims" column. 

**Following the methodology of the report issued by the National Ombudsman's office, we have opted to group all deaths related to looting in a separate column, which includes both a man allegedly killed by looters as well as an adolescent suffocated by tear gas during the unrest.